- Object Pascal / Delphi – Pascal was originally a learning language. Turbo Pascal is an important part of programming history. Further, Anders Hejlsberg led the language development of Delphi and then went on to create C# which, despite being very different from Delphi was heavily influenced by it.
- Haskell – Pure & Lazy functional programming language which has directly and indirectly influenced many languages. As opposed to imperative languages, functional languages require a paradigm shift in thinking and hence will influence the way we code in our current/favorite language. Features like STM, statelessness, Monads and many others make it a must learn programming language, especially with multi-cores on the rise.
- Groovy – A powerful dynamic language for the JVM. It has the lowest barrier to entry for the millions of existing Java developers and acts as a gateway to other dynamic and functional languages, in that it opens peoples eyes to this new world of alternative languages. If I hadn’t learned Groovy, I wouldn’t be trying to learn Clojure now.
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